Clay soil is the bane of garden plants. Firstly, clay doesn’t drain well and can stay a slimy-wet muck that rots plant roots. Plants like well-drained soil — at least most of them do — and fail to thrive or, more commonly, just die. As if wet clay isn’t bad enough, when it finally dries, it’s brick-hard, compacted, airless and resists absorption of water.
If you’ve ever tried to dig a hole in clay, you know how unworkable it can be. If it’s wet, it clings to your shovel in great globs and is nearly impossible to chop into fine chunks. If it’s dry, you might not get your shovel into it at all!
You’re not alone if you’ve thrown up your hands in surrende—clay soil makes up about 10 percent of the soil across the U.S. The good news is that there are plants that can tolerate the extremes of this soil. Also, there are ways to fix clay to make it more hospitable to less hardy plants.
Some shrubs and trees manage to flourish in clay, even heavy clay, their roots resolutely drilling through it millimeter by millimeter. There are also very hardy prairie grasses that have adapted to the harsh conditions of clay. But the delicate roots of annuals, hybrid perennials, and vegetable plants are mostly not up to such a tough challenge. The good news is that some particularly rugged native plants have adapted to the harsh conditions. Below, we’ve listed several that can do that and attract butterflies, honeybees, and birds, as well.
Improve the texture of your clay soil and you’ll be able to plant even more species. Amend it by mixing in organic matter, such as mulched leaves, compost, wood mulch, gypsum and cottonseed hulls. Position plants so the top of their root ball is slightly above the top of the soil — this will help prevent their suffocating in the event the clay stays too boggy even after you’ve improved its texture.
|Common name||Latin Name||Zone|
|Bee Balm||Monarda fistulosa||3–9|
|Big Bluestem (grass)||Andropogon gerardi||2–7|
|Black-eyed Susan||Rudbeckia hirta||3–7|
|Blazing Star||Liatris spicata||4–9|
|Butterfly Weed||Asclepias tuberosa||4–10|
|Cup Plant||Silphium perfoliatum||4–8|
|False Sunflower||Helianthus helianthoides or H. x laetiflorus||5–9|
|Fox Sedge||Carex vulpinoidea||3–7|
|Fringe Cups||Tellima grandiflora||4–8|
|Golden Alexanders||Zizia aurea||4–9|
|Indian Grass (grass)||Sorghastrum nutans||5–8|
|Kansas Gayfeather||Liatris pycnostachya||4–9|
|Little Bluestem (grass)||Schizachyrium scoparium||3–9|
|Nodding Pink Onion||Allium cernuum||3–10|
|Purple Coneflower||Echinacea purpurea||3–9|
|Smooth Penstemon||Penstemon digitalis||3–9|
|Solomon's Seal||Polygonatum commutatum||3–9|
|Swamp Sunflower||Helianthus angustifolius||6–9|
|Wild Hyacinth||Camassia scilloides||3–8|
|Wild Senna||Senna hebecarpa||5–9|